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Epiphanius. Eufebius. Erfordienfè Chronicon manufariptumErnestus Broduftus Mersburgemfis. Efromus Rudigerus V. CL, Eufathius. EutropiusFlorus. Franciscus . CL-Tuning Car's Land (spinswitch.eu): Meisterwerkstatt für Reparaturen, Inspektionen, Chip-Tuning, Reifenverkauf, Achsvermessungen, Klimaservice und . Ländercode CL Länderkürzel nach ISO Alpha CL. ISO Alpha CL ist die zweibuchstabige Länderabkürzung für Chile. Chile. CHL. Alphacl. Jazz suite no 2 habt dazu beigetragen, dass unsere Chilereise unvergesslich bleiben wird. Den in den Play-offs ausgeschiedenen Vereinen bleiben etwaige Zahlungen für die erste und zweite Qualifikationsrunde erhalten. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Fix qualifiziert sind nun neben dem Titelverteidiger die Meister der besten zwölf europäischen Ligen jeweils gemessen am Stand in der Fünfjahreswertung sowie die Zweitplatzierten pokerchips keramik besten sechs Ligen ebenso wie die Tabellendritten der besten drei Spielklassen. CL Daz dritte ist. Mittwochs wurde hingegen ein Livespiel mit deutscher Beteiligung gezeigt; wenn ab der 2-bundesliga.

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The existence of rivers flowing through the territory allows the formation of transverse valleys , where agriculture has developed strongly in recent times, while the coastal plains begin to expand.

The Central area is the most populated region of the country. The coastal plains are wide and allow the establishment of cities and ports along the Pacific.

The Andes maintains altitudes above m but descend slowly starts approaching the meters on average. The intermediate depression reappears becoming a fertile valley that allows agricultural development and human settlement, due to sediment accumulation.

To the south, the Cordillera de la Costa reappears in the range of Nahuelbuta while glacial sediments originate a series of lakes in the area of La Frontera.

During the last glaciation , this area was covered by ice that strongly eroded Chilean relief structures. The Andes mountain range loses height and erosion caused by the action of glaciers has caused fjords.

East of the Andes, on the continent, or north of it, on the island of Tierra del Fuego are located relatively flat plains, which in the Strait of Magellan cover large areas.

In the middle of the Pacific, the country has sovereignty over several islands of volcanic origin, collectively known as Insular Chile. Of these, we highlight the archipelago of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island, which is located in the fracture zone between the Nazca plate and the Pacific plate known as East Pacific Rise.

Due to the characteristics of the territory, Chile is crossed by numerous rivers generally short in length and with low torrential flow. In the center-north of the country, the number of rivers that form valleys of agricultural importance increases.

Their waters mainly flow from Andean snowmelt in the summer and winter rains. The major lakes in this area are the artificial lake Rapel, the Colbun Maule lagoon and the lagoon of La Laja.

Its rate of population growth has been decreasing since , due to a declining birth rate. The largest agglomerations according to the census are Greater Santiago with 5.

A national poll revealed that a majority of Chileans believed they possessed some The census reported , Natives, or 3.

Only those that practiced their native culture or spoke their native language were considered to be Natives, irrespective of their "racial purity".

In a census took place, directly asking the public whether they considered themselves as part of any of the eight Chilean ethnic groups, regardless of whether or not they maintained their culture, traditions and language, and 4.

Of that number, Chile is one of 22 countries to have signed and ratified the only binding international law concerning indigenous peoples, the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, Chile ratified it in A Chilean court decision in November considered to be a landmark ruling on indigenous rights and made use of the convention.

Chile was never a particularly attractive destination for migrants, owing to its remoteness and distance from Europe. Other groups of Europeans have followed but are found in smaller numbers, like the descendants of Austrians [] and Dutch people.

Currently, these are estimated at about 50, people. Sponsored by the Chilean government to "unbarbarize" and colonize the southern region, [] these Germans notably the Swiss, Silesians, Alsatians and Austrians settled mainly in Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue.

Descendants of different European ethnic groups often intermarried in Chile. This intermarriage and mixture of cultures and races have helped to shape the present society and culture of the Chilean middle and upper classes.

Due in part to its economic fortunes, Chile has recently become a new magnet for immigrants, mostly from neighboring Argentina , Bolivia and mainly Peru.

As of [update] , The Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of religion , and other laws and policies contribute to generally free religious practice.

The law at all levels fully protects this right against abuse by either governmental or private actors. Church and state are officially separate in Chile.

A law on religion prohibits religious discrimination. However, the Roman Catholic church for mostly historical and social reasons enjoys a privileged status and occasionally receives preferential treatment.

The Spanish spoken in Chile is distinctively accented and quite unlike that of neighboring South American countries because final syllables are often dropped, and some consonants have a soft pronunciation.

That the Chilean population was largely formed in a small section at the center of the country and then migrated in modest numbers to the north and south helps explain this relative lack of differentiation, which was maintained by the national reach of radio, and now television, which also helps to diffuse and homogenize colloquial expressions.

There are several indigenous languages spoken in Chile: Mapudungun , Quechua , Aymara and Rapa Nui. After the Spanish invasion, Spanish took over as the lingua franca and the indigenous languages have become minority languages, with some now extinct or close to extinction.

German is still spoken to some extent in southern Chile, [] either in small country side pockets or as a second language among the communities of larger cities.

Through initiatives such as the English Opens Doors Program , the government made English mandatory for students in fifth-grade and above in public schools.

Most private schools in Chile start teaching English from kindergarten. In Chile, education begins with preschool until the age of 5.

Primary school is provided for children between ages 6 and Students then attend secondary school until graduation at age Secondary education is divided into two parts: During the first two years, students receive a general education.

Then, they choose a branch: Chilean education is segregated by wealth in a three-tiered system — the quality of the schools reflect socioeconomic backgrounds:.

Upon successful graduation of secondary school, students may continue into higher education. The higher education schools in Chile consist of Chilean Traditional Universities and are divided into public universities or private universities.

There are medical schools and both the Universidad de Chile and Universidad Diego Portales offer law schools in a partnership with Yale University.

The Ministry of Health Minsal is the cabinet-level administrative office in charge of planning, directing, coordinating, executing, controlling and informing the public health policies formulated by the President of Chile.

The National Health Fund Fonasa , created in , is the financial entity entrusted to collect, manage and distribute state funds for health in Chile.

It is funded by the public. All employees pay 7 percent of their monthly income to the fund. Its headquarters are in Santiago and decentralized public service is conducted by various Regional Offices.

More than 12 million beneficiaries benefit from Fonasa. Beneficiaries can also opt for more costly private insurance through Isapre. Hospitals in Chile are mainly located in the Santiago Metropolitan Region.

The Central Bank of Chile in Santiago serves as the central bank for the country. Chile has the highest degree of economic freedom in South America ranking 7th worldwide , owing to its independent and efficient judicial system and prudent public finance management.

Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the s, have contributed to steady economic growth in Chile and have more than halved poverty rates.

The economy remained sluggish until , when it began to show clear signs of recovery, achieving 4. Real GDP growth reached 5. GDP expanded by 5 percent in Nonetheless, economic analysts disagreed with government estimates and predicted economic growth at a median of 1.

Growth slowed to 4. The unemployment rate was 6. The privatized national pension system AFP has encouraged domestic investment and contributed to an estimated total domestic savings rate of approximately 21 percent of GDP.

Chile has signed free trade agreements FTAs with a whole network of countries, including an FTA with the United States that was signed in and implemented in January Registration is reported to be simple and transparent, and foreign investors are guaranteed access to the official foreign exchange market to repatriate their profits and capital.

Agriculture in Chile encompasses a wide range of different activities due to its particular geography , climate and geology and human factors.

Now agriculture and allied sectors like forestry , logging and fishing account for only 4. Some major agriculture products of Chile include grapes , apples , pears , onions , wheat , corn , oats , peaches , garlic , asparagus , beans , beef , poultry , wool , fish , timber and hemp.

Chile currently utilizes 14, Hectares of agricultural land. Tourism in Chile has experienced sustained growth over the last few decades.

In , tourism grew by According to the National Service of Tourism Sernatur , 2 million people a year visit the country.

Most of these visitors come from other countries in the American continent, mainly Argentina ; followed by a growing number from the United States, Europe, and Brazil with a growing number of Asians from South Korea and PR China.

The main attractions for tourists are places of natural beauty situated in the extreme zones of the country: San Pedro de Atacama , in the north, is very popular with foreign tourists who arrive to admire the Incaic architecture, the altiplano lakes, and the Valley of the Moon.

For locals, tourism is concentrated mostly in the summer December to March , and mainly in the coastal beach towns. In November the government launched a campaign under the brand "Chile: All Ways Surprising" intended to promote the country internationally for both business and tourism.

Chile is home to the world renowned Patagonian Trail that resides on the border between Argentina and Chile. Chile recently launched a massive scenic route for tourism in hopes of encouraging development based on conservation.

Buses are now the main means of long distance transportation in Chile, following the decline of its railway network. Chile has a total of runways 62 paved and unpaved.

Chile has a telecommunication system which covers much of the country, including Chilean insular and Antarctic bases.

Privatization of the telephone system began in ; Chile has one of the most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America with a modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities and domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations.

From the period between early agricultural settlements and up to the late pre-Hispanic period, northern Chile was a region of Andean culture that was influenced by altiplano traditions spreading to the coastal valleys of the north, while southern regions were areas of Mapuche cultural activities.

Other European influences, primarily English, French, and German began in the 19th century and have continued to this day. Music in Chile ranges from folkloric, popular and classical music.

Its large geography generates different musical styles in the north, center and south of the country, including also Easter Island and Mapuche music.

Another form of traditional Chilean song, though not a dance, is the tonada. Arising from music imported by the Spanish colonists, it is distinguished from the cueca by an intermediate melodic section and a more prominent melody.

Other important folk singer and researcher on folklore and Chilean ethnography , is Margot Loyola. Chile is a country of poets.

Isabel Allende is the best-selling Chilean novelist, with 51 millions of her novels sold worldwide. Traditional recipes include asado , cazuela , empanadas , humitas , pastel de choclo , pastel de papas, curanto and sopaipillas.

The raw minced llama , heavy use of shellfish and rice bread were taken from native Quechua Andean cuisine, although now beef brought to Chile by Europeans is also used in place of the llama meat , lemon and onions were brought by the Spanish colonists, and the use of mayonnaise and yogurt was introduced by German immigrants, as was beer.

The folklore of Chile, cultural and demographic characteristics of the country, is the result of mixture of Spanish and Amerindian elements that occurred during the colonial period.

Due to cultural and historical reasons, they are classified and distinguished four major areas in the country: Most of the traditions of the culture of Chile have a festive purpose, but some, such as dances and ceremonies, have religious components.

This includes Chilote mythology , Rapa Nui mythology and Mapuche mythology. In the following decades, marked milestones The deck of Death or The Enigma of Lord Street , considered the first film of a Chilean story, The transmission of presidential , the first animated film in the country, and North and South , the first sound film of Chile.

Universidad de Chile was the last international champion Copa Sudamericana At the Summer Olympic Games Chile boasts a total of two gold medals tennis , seven silver medals athletics, equestrian , boxing , shooting and tennis and four bronze medals tennis, boxing and football.

In , Chile won its first Paralympic Games medal gold in Athletics. A sport similar to hockey called chueca was played by the Mapuche people during the Spanish conquest.

Skiing and snowboarding are practiced at ski centers located in the Central Andes, and in southern ski centers near to cities as Osorno, Puerto Varas, Temuco and Punta Arenas.

Polo is professionally practiced within Chile, with the country achieving top prize in the and World Polo Championship. The Dakar Rally off-road automobile race has been held in both Chile and Argentina since The cultural heritage of Chile consists, first, of their intangible heritage, composed of various cultural events, such as visual arts, crafts, dances, holidays, cuisine, games, music and traditions, and, secondly, by its tangible, consists of those buildings, objects and sites of archaeological, architectural, traditional, artistic, ethnographic, folkloric, historical, religious or technological scattered through Chilean territory, among them, those goods are declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO , in accordance with the provisions of the Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage of , ratified by Chile in In the Cultural Heritage Day was established as a way to honour and commemorate Chiles cultural heritage.

It is an official national event celebrated in May every year. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Chile disambiguation.

Native names of Chile. Conquest of Chile and Colonial Chile. Military government of Chile —90 , Miracle of Chile , and Beagle conflict.

Politics of Chile and Law of Chile. Foreign relations of Chile. Country with diplomatic relations and Chilean embassy in the country.

Country with diplomatic relations and an embassy in Chile, but no Chilean embassy. Country with diplomatic relations but without ambassadors.

Country with no diplomatic relations currently. Administrative divisions of Chile. Arica and Parinacota Region. Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica Region.

Largest cities or towns in Chile Census [81]. Leopard 2A4 of the Chilean Army. Karel Doorman-class frigate of the Chilean Navy. Natural regions of Chile and Environmental issues in Chile.

Indigenous peoples in Chile and Immigration to Chile. University of Chile UCh. Education in Chile and List of universities in Chile. Culture of Chile , Music of Chile , and Chilean cuisine.

Chile portal Latin America portal. Central Bank of Chile. Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 29 January Retrieved 29 November Retrieved 18 January World Economic Outlook Database, October Retrieved 5 January Retrieved 2 November United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 14 November United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 17 February Retrieved 31 December Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 12 May Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 17 December Resumen de la Historia de Chile.

Retrieved 2 March GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 27 February Enciclopedia Microsoft Encarta Online. Retrieved 26 February Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 14 July A History of the Global Economy.

From to the Present. Authoritarianism in Latin America since independence. Salt in the Sand: The United States and Chile: Coming in from the Cold.

Socialism, Authoritarianism, and Market Democracy. Archived from the original on 7 January Conflict and Strategy in the Cold War.

Nixon, Kissinger, and Allende: Involvement in the Coup in Chile. Chile and the United States: Declassified Documents relating to the Military Coup, — The National Security Archive: Retrieved 11 March Federation of American Scientists.

Archived from the original on 3 October The Role of the judiciary" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 19 August The national security archive. Archived from the original on 23 December Archived from the original PDF on 27 July Chile Recognizes 9, More Pinochet Victims.

Retrieved 25 August A Nation of Enemies: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. Henry Holt and Company Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The New York Times.

Archived from the original on 26 May Archived from the original on 6 May Retrieved 3 March Retrieved 19 March United States Library of Congress.

Archived from the original on 23 April Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 1 August Chile Signs United Nations Charter".

United Nations General Assembly. Retrieved 17 October North Carolina Journal of International Law. Retrieved 19 October New York Times Company.

Retrieved 28 June Retrieved 20 March Archived from the original on 30 October Ministry of Defence of Chile. Retrieved 10 January Archived from the original on 10 June Retrieved 30 May Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 13 July Retrieved 7 May Information about the Antarctic Treaty and how Antarctica is governed".

Archived from the original on 10 February An Encyclopedia of Garbage and Recycling around the World. Enciclopedia de la flora y fauna de Chile".

Archived from the original on 10 April Retrieved 9 July Geography of Chile 1st ed. Archived from the original PDF on 14 February Archived from the original on 4 March Archived from the original on 29 April Like solid bromine and iodine, solid chlorine crystallises in the orthorhombic crystal system , in a layered lattice of Cl 2 molecules.

This structure means that chlorine is a very poor conductor of electricity, and indeed its conductivity is so low as to be practically unmeasurable.

Chlorine has two stable isotopes, 35 Cl and 37 Cl. Both are synthesised in stars in the oxygen-burning and silicon-burning processes. The other chlorine isotopes are all radioactive, with half-lives too short to occur in nature primordially.

The most stable chlorine radioisotope is 36 Cl. The primary decay mode of isotopes lighter than 35 Cl is electron capture to isotopes of sulfur ; that of isotopes heavier than 37 Cl is beta decay to isotopes of argon ; and 36 Cl may decay by either mode to stable 36 S or 36 Ar.

In the top meter of the lithosphere, 36 Cl is generated primarily by thermal neutron activation of 35 Cl and spallation of 39 K and 40 Ca.

In the subsurface environment, muon capture by 40 Ca becomes more important as a way to generate 36 Cl.

Chlorine is intermediate in reactivity between fluorine and bromine, and is one of the most reactive elements. Chlorine is a weaker oxidising agent than fluorine but a stronger one than bromine or iodine.

However, this trend is not shown in the bond energies because fluorine is singular due to its small size, low polarisability, and lack of low-lying d-orbitals available for bonding which chlorine has.

As another difference, chlorine has a significant chemistry in positive oxidation states while fluorine does not.

Chlorination often leads to higher oxidation states than bromination or iodination but lower oxidation states than fluorination.

However, the kinetics of this reaction are unfavorable, and there is also a bubble overpotential effect to consider, so that electrolysis of aqueous chloride solutions evolves chlorine gas and not oxygen gas, a fact that is very useful for the industrial production of chlorine.

The simplest chlorine compound is hydrogen chloride , HCl, a major chemical in industry as well as in the laboratory, both as a gas and dissolved in water as hydrochloric acid.

It is often produced by burning hydrogen gas in chlorine gas, or as a byproduct of chlorinating hydrocarbons. Another approach is to treat sodium chloride with concentrated sulfuric acid to produce hydrochloric acid, also known as the "salt-cake" process: In the laboratory, hydrogen chloride gas may be made by drying the acid with concentrated sulfuric acid.

Deuterium chloride , DCl, may be produced by reacting benzoyl chloride with heavy water D 2 O. At room temperature, hydrogen chloride is a colourless gas, like all the hydrogen halides apart from hydrogen fluoride , since hydrogen cannot form strong hydrogen bonds to the larger electronegative chlorine atom; however, weak hydrogen bonding is present in solid crystalline hydrogen chloride at low temperatures, similar to the hydrogen fluoride structure, before disorder begins to prevail as the temperature is raised.

Hydrochloric acid forms an azeotrope with boiling point Anhydrous hydrogen chloride is a poor solvent, only able to dissolve small molecular compounds such as nitrosyl chloride and phenol , or salts with very low lattice energies such as tetraalkylammonium halides.

Solvolysis , ligand replacement reactions, and oxidations are well-characterised in hydrogen chloride solution: Nearly all elements in the periodic table form binary chlorides.

The exceptions are decidedly in the minority and stem in each case from one of three causes: Chlorination of metals with Cl 2 usually leads to a higher oxidation state than bromination with Br 2 when multiple oxidation states are available, such as in MoCl 5 and MoBr 3.

Chlorides can be made by reaction of an element or its oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with hydrochloric acid, and then dehydrated by mildly high temperatures combined with either low pressure or anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas.

These methods work best when the chloride product is stable to hydrolysis; otherwise, the possibilities include high-temperature oxidative chlorination of the element with chlorine or hydrogen chloride, high-temperature chlorination of a metal oxide or other halide by chlorine, a volatile metal chloride, carbon tetrachloride , or an organic chloride.

For instance, zirconium dioxide reacts with chlorine at standard conditions to produce zirconium tetrachloride , and uranium trioxide reacts with hexachloropropene when heated under reflux to give uranium tetrachloride.

The second example also involves a reduction in oxidation state , which can also be achieved by reducing a higher chloride using hydrogen or a metal as a reducing agent.

This may also be achieved by thermal decomposition or disproportionation as follows: Silver chloride is very insoluble in water and is thus often used as a qualitative test for chlorine.

This is very unstable and has only been characterised by its electronic band spectrum when produced in a low-pressure discharge tube.

This reaction is conducted in the oxidising solvent arsenic pentafluoride. The three fluorides of chlorine form a subset of the interhalogen compounds, all of which are diamagnetic.

Chlorine monofluoride ClF is extremely thermally stable, and is sold commercially in gram steel lecture bottles.

Its properties are mostly intermediate between those of chlorine and fluorine. It will react with many metals and nonmetals from room temperature and above, fluorinating them and liberating chlorine.

It will also act as a chlorofluorinating agent, adding chlorine and fluorine across a multiple bond or by oxidation: It will also react exothermically and violently with compounds containing —OH and —NH groups, such as water: It is one of the most reactive known chemical compounds, reacting with many substances which in ordinary circumstances would be considered chemically inert, such as asbestos , concrete, and sand.

It explodes on contact with water and most organic substances. The list of elements it sets on fire is diverse, containing hydrogen , potassium , phosphorus , arsenic , antimony , sulfur , selenium , tellurium , bromine , iodine , and powdered molybdenum , tungsten , rhodium , iridium , and iron.

An impermeable fluoride layer is formed by sodium , magnesium , aluminium , zinc , tin , and silver , which may be removed by heating.

When heated, even such noble metals as palladium , platinum , and gold are attacked and even the noble gases xenon and radon do not escape fluorination.

Its reaction with hydrazine to form hydrogen fluoride, nitrogen, and chlorine gases was used in experimental rocket motors, but has problems largely stemming from its extreme hypergolicity resulting in ignition without any measurable delay.

Today, it is mostly used in nuclear fuel processing, to oxidise uranium to uranium hexafluoride for its enriching and to separate it from plutonium.

It is a very strong fluorinating agent, although it is still not as effective as chlorine trifluoride.

Only a few specific stoichiometric reactions have been characterised. The product, chloryl fluoride , is one of the five known chlorine oxide fluorides.

All five behave similarly to the chlorine fluorides, both structurally and chemically, and may act as Lewis acids or bases by gaining or losing fluoride ions respectively or as very strong oxidising and fluorinating agents.

The chlorine oxides are well-studied in spite of their instability all of them are endothermic compounds. They are important because they are produced when chlorofluorocarbons undergo photolysis in the upper atmosphere and cause the destruction of the ozone layer.

None of them can be made from directly reacting the elements. Dichlorine monoxide Cl 2 O is a brownish-yellow gas red-brown when solid or liquid which may be obtained by reacting chlorine gas with yellow mercury II oxide.

It is very soluble in water, in which it is in equilibrium with hypochlorous acid HOCl , of which it is the anhydride. It is thus an effective bleach and is mostly used to make hypochlorites.

It explodes on heating or sparking or in the presence of ammonia gas. Chlorine dioxide ClO 2 was the first chlorine oxide to be discovered in by Humphry Davy.

It is a yellow paramagnetic gas deep-red as a solid or liquid , as expected from its having an odd number of electrons: It is usually prepared by reducing a chlorate as follows: Its production is thus intimately linked to the redox reactions of the chlorine oxoacids.

It is a strong oxidising agent, reacting with sulfur , phosphorus , phosphorus halides, and potassium borohydride.

It dissolves exothermically in water to form dark-green solutions that very slowly decompose in the dark. However, in the presence of light, these solutions rapidly photodecompose to form a mixture of chloric and hydrochloric acids.

The ClO radical leads to the depletion of atmospheric ozone and is thus environmentally important as follows: Chlorine perchlorate ClOClO 3 is a pale yellow liquid that is less stable than ClO 2 and decomposes at room temperature to form chlorine, oxygen, and dichlorine hexoxide Cl 2 O 6.

It hydrolyses in water to give a mixture of chloric and perchloric acids: It is a shock-sensitive, colourless oily liquid. It is the least reactive of the chlorine oxides, being the only one to not set organic materials on fire at room temperature.

It may be dissolved in water to regenerate perchloric acid or in aqueous alkalis to regenerate perchlorates. However, it thermally decomposes explosively by breaking one of the central Cl—O bonds, producing the radicals ClO 3 and ClO 4 which immediately decompose to the elements through intermediate oxides.

Chlorine forms four oxoacids: As can be seen from the redox potentials given in the adjacent table, chlorine is much more stable towards disproportionation in acidic solutions than in alkaline solutions: The rates of reaction for the chlorine oxyanions increases as the oxidation state of chlorine decreases.

The strengths of the chlorine oxyacids increase very quickly as the oxidation state of chlorine increases due to the increasing delocalisation of charge over more and more oxygen atoms in their conjugate bases.

Most of the chlorine oxoacids may be produced by exploiting these disproportionation reactions. Hypochlorous acid HOCl is highly reactive and quite unstable; its salts are mostly used for their bleaching and sterilising abilities.

They are very strong oxidising agents, transferring an oxygen atom to most inorganic species. Chlorous acid HOClO is even more unstable and cannot be isolated or concentrated without decomposition: However, sodium chlorite is a stable salt and is useful for bleaching and stripping textiles, as an oxidising agent, and as a source of chlorine dioxide.

Its most important salt is sodium chlorate , mostly used to make chlorine dioxide to bleach paper pulp. The decomposition of chlorate to chloride and oxygen is a common way to produce oxygen in the laboratory on a small scale.

Chloride and chlorate may comproportionate to form chlorine as follows: Perchloric acid and aqueous perchlorates are vigorous and sometimes violent oxidising agents when heated, in stark contrast to their mostly inactive nature at room temperature due to the high activation energies for these reactions for kinetic reasons.

Perchlorates are made by electrolytically oxidising sodium chlorate, and perchloric acid is made by reacting anhydrous sodium perchlorate or barium perchlorate with concentrated hydrochloric acid, filtering away the chloride precipitated and distilling the filtrate to concentrate it.

Anhydrous perchloric acid is a colourless mobile liquid that is sensitive to shock that explodes on contact with most organic compounds, sets hydrogen iodide and thionyl chloride on fire and even oxidises silver and gold.

Like the other carbon—halogen bonds, the C—Cl bond is a common functional group that forms part of core organic chemistry.

Formally, compounds with this functional group may be considered organic derivatives of the chloride anion.

Due to the difference of electronegativity between chlorine 3. Chlorination modifies the physical properties of hydrocarbons in several ways: Alkanes and aryl alkanes may be chlorinated under free radical conditions, with UV light.

However, the extent of chlorination is difficult to control: Aryl chlorides may be prepared by the Friedel-Crafts halogenation , using chlorine and a Lewis acid catalyst.

Chlorine adds to the multiple bonds on alkenes and alkynes as well, giving di- or tetra-chloro compounds. However, due to the expense and reactivity of chlorine, organochlorine compounds are more commonly produced by using hydrogen chloride, or with chlorinating agents such as phosphorus pentachloride PCl 5 or thionyl chloride SOCl 2.

The last is very convenient in the laboratory because all side products are gaseous and do not have to be distilled out.

Many organochlorine compounds have been isolated from natural sources ranging from bacteria to humans. Some types of organochlorides, though not all, have significant toxicity to plants or animals, including humans.

Dioxins, produced when organic matter is burned in the presence of chlorine, and some insecticides, such as DDT , are persistent organic pollutants which pose dangers when they are released into the environment.

For example, DDT, which was widely used to control insects in the mid 20th century, also accumulates in food chains, and causes reproductive problems e.

Chlorine is too reactive to occur as the free element in nature but is very abundant in the form of its chloride salts. All of these pale in comparison to the reserves of chloride ions in seawater: Small batches of chlorine gas are prepared in the laboratory by combining hydrochloric acid and manganese dioxide , but the need rarely arises due to its ready availability.

In industry, elemental chlorine is usually produced by the electrolysis of sodium chloride dissolved in water. This method, the chloralkali process industrialized in , now provides most industrial chlorine gas.

The process proceeds according to the following chemical equation: In diaphragm cell electrolysis, an asbestos or polymer-fiber diaphragm separates a cathode and an anode , preventing the chlorine forming at the anode from re-mixing with the sodium hydroxide and the hydrogen formed at the cathode.

Diaphragm methods produce dilute and slightly impure alkali, but they are not burdened with the problem of mercury disposal and they are more energy efficient.

Membrane cell electrolysis employs permeable membrane as an ion exchanger. Saturated sodium or potassium chloride solution is passed through the anode compartment, leaving at a lower concentration.

This method also produces very pure sodium or potassium hydroxide but has the disadvantage of requiring very pure brine at high concentrations.

In the Deacon process , hydrogen chloride recovered from the production of organochlorine compounds is recovered as chlorine.

The process relies on oxidation using oxygen:. The reaction requires a catalyst. As introduced by Deacon, early catalysts were based on copper.

Commercial processes, such as the Mitsui MT-Chlorine Process, have switched to chromium and ruthenium-based catalysts. Sodium chloride is by a huge margin the most common chlorine compound, and it is the main source of chlorine and hydrochloric acid for the enormous chlorine-chemicals industry today.

About chlorine-containing compounds are commercially traded, including such diverse compounds as chlorinated methanes and ethanes , vinyl chloride and its polymer polyvinyl chloride PVC , aluminium trichloride for catalysis , the chlorides of magnesium , titanium , zirconium , and hafnium which are the precursors for producing the pure elements, and so on.

Other particularly important organochlorines are methyl chloride , methylene chloride , chloroform , vinylidene chloride , trichloroethylene , perchloroethylene , allyl chloride , epichlorohydrin , chlorobenzene , dichlorobenzenes , and trichlorobenzenes.

This was done in "gut factories" boyauderies , and it was an odiferous and unhealthy process. The same chemicals were found to be useful in the routine disinfection and deodorization of latrines , sewers , markets, abattoirs , anatomical theatres , and morgues.

In , the contagion of infections was well known, even though the agency of the microbe was not discovered until more than half a century later.

During the Paris cholera outbreak of , large quantities of so-called chloride of lime were used to disinfect the capital.

This was not simply modern calcium chloride , but chlorine gas dissolved in lime-water dilute calcium hydroxide to form calcium hypochlorite chlorinated lime.

Chloride of lime was used for destroying odors and "putrid matter". One source claims chloride of lime was used by Dr. John Snow to disinfect water from the cholera-contaminated well that was feeding the Broad Street pump in London, [72] though three other reputable sources that describe that famous cholera epidemic do not mention the incident.

A modified version of this solution continues to be employed in wound irrigation in modern times, where it remains effective against bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics see Century Pharmaceuticals.

The first continuous application of chlorination to drinking U. Chlorine is presently an important chemical for water purification such as in water treatment plants , in disinfectants , and in bleach.

Even small water supplies are now routinely chlorinated. Chlorine is usually used in the form of hypochlorous acid to kill bacteria and other microbes in drinking water supplies and public swimming pools.

In most private swimming pools, chlorine itself is not used, but rather sodium hypochlorite , formed from chlorine and sodium hydroxide , or solid tablets of chlorinated isocyanurates.

The drawback of using chlorine in swimming pools is that the chlorine reacts with the proteins in human hair and skin. As a disinfectant in water, chlorine is more than three times as effective against Escherichia coli as bromine , and more than six times as effective as iodine.

It is often impractical to store and use poisonous chlorine gas for water treatment, so alternative methods of adding chlorine are used.

These include hypochlorite solutions, which gradually release chlorine into the water, and compounds like sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione dihydrate or anhydrous , sometimes referred to as "dichlor", and trichloro-s-triazinetrione , sometimes referred to as "trichlor".

These compounds are stable while solid and may be used in powdered, granular, or tablet form. When added in small amounts to pool water or industrial water systems, the chlorine atoms hydrolyze from the rest of the molecule forming hypochlorous acid HOCl , which acts as a general biocide, killing germs, micro-organisms, algae, and so on.

It also tasted metallic and stung the back of the throat and chest. Chlorine reacts with water in the mucosa of the lungs to form hydrochloric acid , destructive to living tissue and potentially lethal.

Human respiratory systems can be protected from chlorine gas by gas masks with activated charcoal or other filters, which makes chlorine gas much less lethal than other chemical weapons.

It was pioneered by a German scientist later to be a Nobel laureate, Fritz Haber of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, in collaboration with the German chemical conglomerate IG Farben , which developed methods for discharging chlorine gas against an entrenched enemy.

Chlorine gas was also used during the Iraq War in Anbar Province in , with insurgents packing truck bombs with mortar shells and chlorine tanks.

The attacks killed two people from the explosives and sickened more than Most of the deaths were caused by the force of the explosions rather than the effects of chlorine since the toxic gas is readily dispersed and diluted in the atmosphere by the blast.

In some bombings, over a hundred civilians were hospitalized due to breathing difficulties. The Iraqi authorities tightened security for elemental chlorine, which is essential for providing safe drinking water to the population.

The Syrian government allegedly uses chlorine as a chemical weapon , [92] often dropping it in barrel bombs , [93] but sometimes also in rockets.

The chloride anion is an essential nutrient for metabolism. Chlorine is needed for the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and in cellular pump functions.

Overly low or high concentrations of chloride in the blood are examples of electrolyte disturbances. Hypochloremia having too little chloride rarely occurs in the absence of other abnormalities.

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